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iindaba

Isishwankathelo

I-inductors zizinto ezibaluleke kakhulu xa kuguqulwa abaguquli, njengokugcina amandla kunye neefilitha zamandla. Zininzi iintlobo ze-inductors, ezinje ngezicelo ezahlukeneyo (ukusuka kumaza asezantsi ukuya kumaza aphezulu), okanye izinto ezahlukeneyo ezingundoqo ezichaphazela iimpawu ze-inductor, njalo njalo. Ama-inductors asetyenziselwa ukutshintshela abaguquli zizinto eziphezulu zamaza ombane. Nangona kunjalo, ngenxa yezinto ezahlukeneyo ezinje ngezixhobo, iimeko zokusebenza (ezinje ngevolthi kunye nekhoyo ngoku), kunye neqondo lobushushu lokuma, iimpawu kunye neethiyori ezichaziweyo zahlukile. Ke ngoko, kuyilo lweesekethe, ukongeza kwiparameter esisiseko yexabiso lokunyanzeliswa, ubudlelwane phakathi kwe-impedance ye-inductor kunye nokumelana ne-AC kunye nokuhamba rhoqo, ilahleko engundoqo kunye neempawu zangoku zokugcwala, njl.njl. Eli nqaku liza kwazisa ngezinto ezibalulekileyo ezisisiseko ze-inductor kunye neempawu zazo, kunye nokukhokela iinjineli zamandla ekukhetheni inductors esemgangathweni efumanekayo.

Intshayelelo

I-Inductor licandelo lokungeniswa kwe-electromagnetic, elenziwa ngokubumba inani elithile lekhoyili (coil) kwi-bobbin okanye kumbindi ngocingo olufakiweyo. Le coil ibizwa ngokuba yi-coil ye-inductance okanye i-Inductor. Ngokomgaqo wokungeniswa kwe-electromagnetic, xa i-coil kunye ne-magnetic field zihamba ngokumalunga nomnye, okanye i-coil ivelisa enye indawo yamagnetic ngokusebenzisa i-current alternating, i-voltage eyenziweyo iya kwenziwa ukukhusela utshintsho lwentsimi yamagnetic yasekuqaleni, kwaye olu phawu lokuthintela utshintsho lwangoku lubizwa ngokuba kukungenisa.

Ifomula yexabiso lokunyanzelwa ifomula (1), elingana nokuqina kwemagnethi, isikwere sokujikajika kujika u-N, kunye nomlinganiso olinganayo wecandelo lesiphaluka se-Ae, kwaye ulingana ngokulinganayo nobude beesekethe ezilinganayo . Zininzi iintlobo zokuchithwa, nganye ifanelekileyo kwizicelo ezahlukeneyo; inductance inxulumene nemilo, ubungakanani, indlela jiko, inani amathuba, kunye nohlobo izinto eliphakathi ngemagnethi.

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Kuxhomekeke kubume bentsimbi engundoqo, i-inductance ibandakanya i-toroidal, i-E engundoqo kunye negubu; ngokwemathiriyeli yentsimbi, kukho ubukhulu becala isiseko se-ceramic kunye neentlobo ezimbini ezithambileyo zemagneti. Ziyi-ferrite kunye ne-metallic powder. Kuxhomekeke kubume okanye indlela yokupakisha, kukho inxeba yocingo, uluhlu oluninzi, kwaye lubunjiwe, kwaye inxeba locingo alikhuselekanga kunye nesiqingatha seglu yamagnetic ekhuselweyo (ekhuselweyo) kwaye ikhuselwe (ikhuselwe), njl.

I-inductor isebenza ngokungathi sisiphaluka esifutshane ngoku yangoku, kwaye inika impedance ephezulu yokutshintsha okwangoku. Izinto ezisisiseko ezisetyenziswayo kwiisekethe zibandakanya ukukrwitshwa, ukuhluzwa, ukulungiswa kunye nokugcinwa kwamandla. Ukusetyenziswa kwesiguquli sokutshintsha, i-inductor lelona candelo libalulekileyo lokugcina amandla, kwaye lenza icebo lokucoca elisezantsi kunye nesiphumo sokukhupha amandla ombane, kwaye ikwadlala indima ebalulekileyo kulomsebenzi wokucoca.

Eli nqaku liza kwazisa ngezinto ezahlukeneyo ezisisiseko se-inductors kunye neempawu zazo, kunye nezinye zeempawu zombane ze-inductors, njengesalathiso esibalulekileyo sovavanyo ekukhetheni i-inductors ngexesha loyilo lwesekethe. Kumzekelo wesicelo, indlela yokubala ixabiso lokunyanzeliswa kunye nendlela yokukhetha i-inductor esemgangathweni ekhoyo iya kwaziswa ngemizekelo ebonakalayo.

Uhlobo lwezinto eziphambili

Ama-inductors asetyenziselwa ukutshintshela abaguquli zizinto eziphezulu zamaza ombane. Izinto ezisisiseko embindini zichaphazela kakhulu iimpawu ze-inductor, ezinje nge-impedance kunye nokuhamba rhoqo, ixabiso lokunyanzeliswa kunye nokuhamba rhoqo, okanye iimpawu zokugcwala okungundoqo. Oku kulandelayo kuyakwazisa ukuthelekiswa kwezinto ezininzi eziqhelekileyo zentsimbi kunye neempawu zazo zokugcwala njengesixhobo esibalulekileyo sokukhetha amandla ombane:

1. Isiseko seCeramic

Isiseko seCeramic yenye yezinto eziqhelekileyo zokunciphisa. Isetyenziselwa ukubonelela ngesiseko esixhasayo esisetyenzisiweyo xa kusongwa iikhoyili. Ikwabizwa ngokuba "ngumoya osisiseko somoya". Ngenxa yokuba isiseko sesinyithi esisetyenzisiweyo sisisixhobo esingenamandla esisebenza kunye neqondo lobushushu eliphantsi kakhulu, ixabiso lokungenisa lizinzile kuluhlu lobushushu obusebenzayo. Nangona kunjalo, ngenxa yezinto ezingenamandla ombane njengombane, i-inductance iphantsi kakhulu, engakulungelanga kakhulu ukusetyenziswa kwesiguquli samandla.

2. Ferrite

Isiseko se-ferrite esisetyenziswa kwi-frequency inductors ngokubanzi sisiseko se-ferrite esine-nickel zinc (NiZn) okanye i-manganese zinc (MnZn), esisixhobo se-ferromagnetic esithambileyo esinobumbano oluphantsi. Umzobo 1 ubonisa ijika le-hysteresis (i-BH loop) yesiseko ngokubanzi semagneti. Amandla enyanzelisayo i-HC yezinto ezikwimagnethi ikwabizwa ngokuba kukunyanzelwa, oko kuthetha ukuba xa izixhobo zemagnethi ziye zazaliswa ngemagneti ukuze zizalise amandla kazibuthe, imagnethi yayo (i-magnetization) iye yehliswa yaya zero Amandla amandla omazibuthe afunekayo ngelo xesha. Ukunyanzeliswa okungaphantsi kuthetha ukunganyangeki okuphantsi kwidemagnetization kwaye kukwathetha nelahleko ye-hysteresis esezantsi.

I-Manganese-zinc kunye ne-nickel-zinc ferrites zinokuqina okuphezulu kwesihlobo (μr), malunga ne-1500-15000 kunye ne-100-1000, ngokwahlukeneyo. Ukuqina kwabo okuphezulu kwemagnethi kwenza ukuba isinyithi siphakame kwivolumu ethile. Ukukhutshwa. Nangona kunjalo, into engalunganga kukuba ukunyamezeleka kwayo okwangoku kungaphantsi, kwaye nje ukuba isiseko sesinyithi sigcwalisiwe, amandla okuzibamba aya kuwela kabukhali. Jonga uMzobo 4 kwinto eyinciphayo yokuqina kwamandla e-ferrite kunye ne-powder cores xa isiseko sesinyithi sigcwele. Thelekisa. Xa isetyenziselwa ukungena kwamandla, isithuba somoya siya kushiyeka kwisekethe enkulu yamagnetic, enokuthi inciphise ukungena, kuthintele ukugcwala kunye nokugcina amandla ngakumbi; Xa umsantsa womoya ubandakanyiwe, ukulingana okulinganayo kwesihlobo kunokuba malunga nama-20- Phakathi kwama-200. Kuba ukusindeka okuphezulu kwezinto ngokwazo kunokunciphisa ilahleko ebangelwe yiddy current, ilahleko isezantsi kumaza aphezulu, kwaye kufaneleke ngakumbi Isiguquli esihamba ngesantya esiphezulu, izixhobo zokucoca ulwelo ze-EMI kunye nezixhobo zokugcina amandla eziguquliweyo zamandla. Ngokwexesha lokusebenza, i-nickel-zinc ferrite ilungele ukusetyenziswa (> 1 MHz), ngelixa i-manganese-zinc ferrite ilungele iibhendi zamaza asezantsi (<2 MHz).

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Umzobo 1. Igophe le-hysteresis yesiseko semagnethi (i-BR: isikhuthazo; i-BSAT: ukugcwala kwemagneti yeflux)

3. Ingqungquthela yentsimbi yobunzima

Iipowder zentsimbi ye-Powder nazo zithambile-magnetic ferromagnetic materials. Zenziwe nge-alloys yentsimbi yezixhobo ezahlukeneyo okanye umgubo wentsimbi kuphela. Ifomula iqulethe izinto ezingezizo ezomazibuthe ezinobungakanani obahlukeneyo bamasuntswana, ke ngoko ijikaji lokugcwalisa lilungile. Isiseko somgubo wentsimbi ubukhulu becala yi-toroidal. Umzobo 2 ubonakalisa isiseko se powder yentsimbi kunye nembono yecandelo eliwela umnqamlezo.

Iibhola zentsimbi eziqhelekileyo zibandakanya i-iron-nickel-molybdenum alloy (MPP), i-sendust (Sendust), i-iron-nickel alloy (flux ephezulu) kunye nomgubo wentsimbi (umgubo wentsimbi). Ngenxa yezinto ezahlukeneyo, iimpawu zayo kunye namaxabiso ahlukile, achaphazela ukhetho lwabangenisi. Oku kulandelayo kuya kwazisa ezi ntlobo zikhankanyiweyo ngasentla kwaye zithelekise iimpawu zazo:

Ingxubevange ye-Iron-nickel-molybdenum (MPP)

I-Fe-Ni-Mo alloy ishunqulelwe njenge-MPP, esisifinyezo se-molypermalloy powder. Ukuthambeka kwesihlobo kumalunga ne-14-500, kunye nokuxinana kokuxinana kwemagneti malunga ne-7500 Gauss (Gauss), ephezulu kune-saturation magnetic flux density ye-ferrite (malunga ne-4000-5000 Gauss). Baninzi ngaphandle. I-MPP ineyona ilahleko incinci yesinyithi kwaye inezinga elifanelekileyo lobushushu phakathi kwe-powder iron cores. Xa i-DC yangoku ifikelela kwi-ISAT yangoku ye-saturation, ixabiso lokunyanzeliswa liyancipha ngokukhawuleza ngaphandle kokunciphisa ngokukhawuleza. I-MPP inentsebenzo engcono kodwa ixabiso eliphezulu, kwaye ihlala isetyenziswa njenge-inductor yamandla kunye nokucoca i-EMI yokuguqula amandla.

 

B. I-Sendust

Isinyithi-isilicon-aluminium ingxubevange yentsimbi sisiseko se-alloy esenziwe ngentsimbi, i-silicon, kunye ne-aluminiyamu, enokuqina kwamagnetic malunga ne-26 ukuya kwi-125. Ilahleko yentsimbi iphakathi komgubo wentsimbi kunye ne-MPP kunye ne-iron-nickel alloy . Ubuninzi be-flux magnetic flux density iphezulu kune-MPP, malunga ne-10500 Gauss. Ukuzinza kwamaqondo obushushu kunye nokuzaliswa kweempawu ezikhoyo ngoku ziphantsi kancinci kwi-MPP kunye ne-iron-nickel alloy, kodwa kungcono kunentsimbi yomgubo osisiseko kunye neferrite, kwaye iindleko ezinxulumene noko zitshiphu kune-MPP kunye ne-iron-nickel alloy. Isetyenziswa ikakhulu ekuhluzeni i-EMI, kulungiso lwamandla (i-PFC) imijikelezo kunye namandla okuhambisa amandla okuguqula amandla okuguqula amandla.

 

C. Ingxubevange ye-Iron-nickel (ukuhamba ngamandla)

Isiseko se-iron-nickel alloy senziwe ngentsimbi kunye ne-nickel. Ubungqingqwa bemagneti malunga ne-14-200. Ukulahleka kwentsimbi kunye nozinzo lobushushu ziphakathi kwe-MPP kunye ne-iron-silicon-aluminium alloy. Isiseko se-iron-nickel alloy sinokugcwala okuphezulu kwe-magnetic flux, malunga ne-15,000 Gauss, kwaye inokumelana nemijelo ephezulu ye-DC, kunye neempawu zayo zokukhetha i-DC zikwangcono. Ubungakanani besicelo: Ukulungiswa kwamandla okusebenza kwamandla, ukugcinwa kwamandla okunyanzeliswa, ukufakelwa kwefilitha, ukuguqula amaza okuphezulu kwesiguquli sokubuyela umva, njl.

 

D. umgubo wentsimbi

Isiseko somgubo wentsimbi senziwe ngobumsulwa obuphezulu bentsimbi olungumgubo kunye namasuntswana amancinci kakhulu afakwe omnye komnye. Inkqubo yokuvelisa yenza ukuba kubekho isithuba somoya esihanjisiweyo. Ukongeza kwimilo yesazinge, iimilo eziqhelekileyo zomgubo wentsimbi zikwanazo ne-E-type kunye ne-stamping types. Ukuthambeka kwamandla ombane we-iron powder kumalunga ne-10 ukuya kwi-75, kunye nokuxinana okuphezulu kwe-magnetic flux density malunga ne-15000 Gauss. Phakathi kweentsimbi zomgubo wentsimbi, isiseko somgubo wentsimbi yeyona ilahleko iphezulu yesinyithi kodwa eyona ndleko iphantsi.

Umzobo 3 ubonakalisa i-BH curves ye-PC47 manganese-zinc ferrite eyenziwe yi-TDK kunye ne-powdered iron cores -52 kunye -2 eyenziwe yi-MICROMETALS; Amandla emagneti e-manganese-zinc ferrite aphakame kakhulu kunalawo e-powdered iron cores kwaye agcwele ubungqingqwa bemagnific flux bukwahluke kakhulu, i-ferrite imalunga ne-5000 Gauss kwaye umgubo we-iron powder ungaphezulu kwe-10000 Gauss.

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Umzobo 3. I-BH curve ye-manganese-zinc ferrite kunye ne-iron powder cores yezinto ezahlukeneyo

 

Isishwankathelo, iimpawu zokugcwala kwesiseko sesinyithi zahlukile; nje ukuba ukugcwala okwangoku kugqityiwe, amandla okuqina ombane we-ferrite aya kwehla kabukhali, ngelixa isiseko somgubo wentsimbi sinokucotha kancinci. Umzobo 4 ubonakalisa ukuhla kwamandla emagnethi okuphuma kwisiseko somgubo wentsimbi kunye nokuqina okufanayo kommandla kunye neferrite enesikhewu somoya phantsi kwamandla ahlukeneyo omhlaba. Oku kukwacacisa ukungafakwanga kwesiseko se-ferrite, kuba ukugqabhuka kwehla kakhulu xa isiseko sigcwele, njengoko kunokubonwa kwi-equation (1), ikwabangela ukuba inductance yehle kabukhali; Ngelixa isiseko somgubo kunye nokusasazwa kwesithuba somoya, amandla ozibuthe omncinci umlinganiso wehla ngokuthe chu xa isiseko sesinyithi sigcwele, ngenxa yoko inductance iyancipha ngokuthe kratya, okt ineempawu ezingakhethi cala zeDC. Ukusetyenziswa kwabaguquli bamandla, olu phawu lubaluleke kakhulu; Ukuba uphawu olucothayo lwe-inductor alulunganga, i-inductor yangoku inyuka iye kwi-saturation yangoku, kwaye ukwehla ngesiquphe kwe-inductance kuya kubangela uxinzelelo lwangoku lokutshintsha kwekristale ukuba inyuke ngokukhawuleza, ekulula ukuyibangela yomonakalo.

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Umzobo 4. Iimpawu zokuthambeka kweMagnetic yentsimbi engumgubo yentsimbi kunye neferrite yentsimbi kunye nomgangatho womoya phantsi kwamandla ahlukeneyo omhlaba.

 

Iimpawu zombane ze-inductor kunye nolwakhiwo lwephakheji

Xa uyila isiguquli sokutshintsha kwaye ukhetha i-inductor, ixabiso lokunyanzeliswa L, i-impedance Z, i-AC ukumelana ne-ACR kunye nexabiso le-Q (umgangatho wekhwalithi), ulinganise i-IDC yangoku kunye ne-ISAT, kunye nelahleko engundoqo (ilahleko engundoqo) kunye nezinye izinto ezibalulekileyo zombane. ithathelwe ingqalelo. Ukongeza, ubume bempahla ye-inductor buya kuchaphazela ubukhulu bokuvuza okuchongiweyo, okuya kuthi kuchaphazele i-EMI. Oku kulandelayo kuya kuxoxa ngezi mpawu zikhankanywe apha ngasentla ngokwahlukeneyo njengokuqwalaselwa ekukhetheni abangenisi.

1. Ixabiso lokungenisa (L)

Ixabiso lokungenisa i-inductor yeyona parameter ibaluleke kakhulu kuyilo lwesekethe, kodwa kufuneka ihlolwe ukuba ixabiso lokungenisa lizinzile kwisantya sokusebenza. Ixabiso lokuchazwa kwe-inductance lihlala lilinganiswe kwi-100 kHz okanye kwi-1 MHz ngaphandle kwe-DC yangaphandle. Kwaye ukuqinisekisa ukuba kunokwenzeka kwemveliso ezenzekelayo, ukunyamezelwa kwe-inductor kuhlala kune-20% (M) kunye ne-± 30% (N). Umzobo 5 ligrafti yokuhamba rhoqo kweempawu zeTaiyo Yuden inductor NR4018T220M ilinganiswe ngemitha ye-LCR kaWayne Kerr. Njengoko kubonisiwe kumzobo, ijika lokunyanzeliswa kwe-curve licwecwe phambi kwe-5 MHz, kwaye ixabiso lokunyanzeliswa linokuthathwa njengesiqhelo. Kwibhendi yokuhamba ngesantya esiphezulu ngenxa yesandi esiveliswe kukusebenza kwamandla e-parasitic kunye ne-inductance, ixabiso lokunyusa liya kunyuka. Le frequency ye-resonance ibizwa ngokuba yi-self-resonant frequency (SRF), ehlala ifuna ukuba phezulu kakhulu kunokuhamba rhoqo.

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Umzobo 5, Taiyo Yuden NR4018T220M inductance-frequency frequency dimension measurement diagram

 

2.Impazamo (Z)

Njengoko kubonisiwe kwi Umzobo 6, umzobo we-impedance unokubonwa ekusebenzeni kwe-inductance kumaza ahlukeneyo. Ukunyanzelwa kwe-inductor kuphantse kulingane nokuhamba rhoqo (Z = 2πfL), ke ngoku kuphakama ukuphindaphindeka, ukuphendula kuya kuba kukhulu ngakumbi kunokumelana ne-AC, ngenxa yoko i-impedance iziphatha ngokungathi inyanzelekile (isigaba ngu-90˚). Kwiindawo ezihamba rhoqo, ngenxa yempembelelo ye-parasitic capacitance effect, inqaku lokuphindaphindeka elizinzileyo le-impedance linokubonwa. Emva kweli nqaku, i-impedance iyehla kwaye ibe namandla, kwaye isigaba sitshintsha ngokuthe ngcembe ukuya kwi -90 ˚.

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3. Q ixabiso kunye nokumelana ne-AC (ACR)

Ixabiso le-Q kwinkcazo ye-inductance ngumlinganiso wokuphendula ngokuchasene, oko kukuthi, umlinganiso wenxalenye yentelekelelo kwinxalenye yokwenyani ye-impedance, njengakwifomula (2).

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(2)

Apho i-XL sisenzo se-inductor, kunye ne-RL kukumelana ne-AC ye-inductor.

Kwinqanaba le-frequency ephantsi, ukuxhathisa kwe-AC kukhulu kunokusabela okubangelwa kukungeniswa, ngenxa yoko ixabiso laso le-Q liphantsi kakhulu; njengoko ukunyuka kwamaza, ukuphendula kwakhona (malunga ne-2πfL) kuya kuba nkulu kwaye kukhulu, nokuba ukuxhathisa ngenxa yempembelelo yolusu (umphumo wesikhumba) kunye nokufuphi (kufutshane) isiphumo siya kuba sikhulu kwaye sikhulu, kwaye ixabiso le-Q landa ngokuhamba rhoqo ; xa usondela kwi-SRF, i-reactive inductive isuswe kancinci yi-capacitive reaction, kunye nexabiso le-Q ngokuthe ngcembe lincinci; xa i-SRF iba zero, kuba ukusabela okunganyanzelekanga kunye nokuphendula okwenziwe ngokufanayo kuyafana nokunyamalala okufanayo. Umzobo 7 ubonakalisa ubudlelwane phakathi kwexabiso le-Q kunye nobuninzi be-NR4018T220M, kwaye ubudlelwane busekwimo yentsimbi eguqulweyo.

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Umzobo 7. Ubudlelwane phakathi kwexabiso le-Q kunye nobuninzi be-Taiyo Yuden inductor NR4018T220M

Kwibhendi yesicelo sokuhamba rhoqo kwe-inductance, ixabiso le-Q liphezulu, ngcono; kuthetha ukuba ukusabela kwayo kukhulu kakhulu kunokumelana ne-AC. Ngokubanzi, elona xabiso le-Q lingaphezulu kwe-40, oko kuthetha ukuba umgangatho we-inductor ulungile. Nangona kunjalo, ngokubanzi njengoko ukunyuka kwe-DC kukhula, ixabiso lokunyanzeliswa liya kuncipha kwaye ixabiso le-Q liya kuncipha. Ukuba kusetyenziswa ucingo olucocekileyo olunamacala okanye ucingo olunemigca emininzi, isiphumo solusu, oko kukuthi, ukumelana ne-AC, sinokuncitshiswa, kunye nexabiso le-Q le-inductor linokunyuswa.

Ukuxhathisa i-DCR i-DCR kuthathwa njengokuchasana kwe-DC yocingo lobhedu, kwaye uxhathiso lunokubalwa ngokobubanzi be-wire kunye nobude. Nangona kunjalo, uninzi lwee-inductors ze-SMD ezikhoyo ngoku ziya kusebenzisa i-welding ye-ultrasonic ukwenza iphepha lobhedu lwe-SMD kwisiphelo esisezantsi. Nangona kunjalo, ngenxa yokuba ucingo lobhedu alukho mde ubude kwaye ixabiso lokumelana alikho phezulu, uxhathiso lwe-welding luhlala lubangela inani elikhulu le-DC. Ukuthatha i-TDK yocingo-inxeba le-SMD inductor CLF6045NIT-1R5N njengomzekelo, uxhathiso olulinganisiweyo lwe-DC yi-14.6mΩ, kwaye uxhathiso lwe-DC lubalwe ngokusekwe kububanzi becingo kunye nobude yi-12.1mΩ. Iziphumo zibonisa ukuba uxhathiso lwe-welding lubanga malunga ne-17% yoxhathiso lweDC ngokubanzi.

Ukuxhathisa kwe-ACR i-ACR inefuthe lolusu kunye nefuthe lokusondela, eliya kuthi lenze ukuba i-ACR inyuke rhoqo; ekusetyenzisweni kwe-inductance ngokubanzi, kuba icandelo le-AC liphantsi kakhulu kunecandelo le-DC, ifuthe elibangelwa yi-ACR alicacanga; kodwa kumthwalo olula, Ngenxa yokuba icandelo le-DC lincitshisiwe, ilahleko ebangelwe yi-ACR ayinakuhoywa. Iziphumo zolusu zithetha ukuba phantsi kweemeko ze-AC, ukuhanjiswa okwangoku ngaphakathi komqhubi kungalingani kwaye kugxilwe kumphezulu wocingo, kukhokelela kunciphiso lwendawo enqamlezileyo yocingo, ethi yona inyuse uxhathiso olulinganayo lwentambo kunye Ubuninzi. Ukongeza, ekubanjweni ngocingo, iingcingo ezikufutshane ziya kubangela ukongeza kunye nokuthabatha amandla kazibuthe ngenxa yangoku, ukuze okwangoku kugxilwe kumphezulu okufuphi ngocingo (okanye umphezulu okude, kuxhomekeke kwicala langoku ), ekwabangela ukuba intambo ilingane. Into yokuba indawo iyancipha kwaye ukunyuka okulinganayo kuyanda yinto ekuthiwa sisiphumo sokusondela; kwisicelo sokunyanzeliswa kwe-multilayer winding, isiphumo sokusondela sisicace ngakumbi.

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Umzobo 8 ubonakalisa ubudlelwane phakathi kokumelana ne-AC kunye nokuhamba rhoqo kwenxeba lenxeba le-SMD inductor NR4018T220M. Kubuninzi be1kHz, ukuxhathisa kumalunga ne-360mΩ; kwi-100kHz, ukuxhathisa kunyuka kuye kwi-775mΩ; kwi-10MHz, ixabiso lokumelana lisondele kwi-160Ω. Xa uqikelela ilahleko yobhedu, ukubala kufuneka kuthathelwe ingqalelo i-ACR ebangelwa lulusu kunye nokusondela kwiziphumo, kwaye uyiguqule kwifomula (3).

4. Ukugcwalisa okwangoku (ISAT)

Ukugcwala okwangoku kwe-ISAT ngokubanzi kukhetho lwangoku olukhethiweyo xa ixabiso lokunyanzeliswa lifunyenwe njenge-10%, 30%, okanye 40%. Ye-ferrite enesikhewu somoya, kuba uphawu lwayo lwangoku luyakhawuleza kakhulu, akukho mahluko mkhulu phakathi kwe-10% kunye ne-40%. Jonga uMzobo 4. Nangona kunjalo, ukuba sisiseko somgubo wentsimbi (njenge-stamp inductor), ijikaji lokugcwala lilulamile, njengoko kubonisiwe kumzobo 9, i-bias yangoku kwi-10% okanye kwi-40% yokuncitshiswa kwe-inductance kuninzi eyahlukileyo, ke ixabiso lokugcwalisa okwangoku liya kuxoxwa ngokwahlukeneyo kwezi ndidi zimbini zentsimbi ngolu hlobo lulandelayo.

Kwi-ferrite enesikhewu somoya, kusengqiqweni ukusebenzisa i-ISAT njengomda ophezulu weyona inductor iphezulu yangoku kwizicelo zesekethe. Nangona kunjalo, ukuba sisiseko somgubo wentsimbi, ngenxa yeempawu zokucothisa kancinci, ngekhe kubekho ngxaki nokuba ubuninzi beesekethe zesicelo budlula i-ISAT. Ke ngoko, olona phawu lwentsimbi lusezona zilungele ukutshintshela usetyenziso lokuguqula. Ngaphantsi komthwalo onzima, nangona ixabiso lokungenisa i-inductor liphantsi, njengoko kubonisiwe kumzobo 9, imeko yangoku ye-ripple iphezulu, kodwa i-capacitor yangoku ukunyamezelana kuphezulu, ngenxa yoko ayizukuba yingxaki. Ngaphantsi komthwalo omncinci, ixabiso lokungenisa i-inductor likhulu, elinceda ukunciphisa amandla e-inductor, ngaloo ndlela kunciphisa ilahleko yentsimbi. Umzobo 9 uthelekisa ijika lokugcwala langoku le-TDK yenxeba le-ferrite SLF7055T1R5N kunye nesitampu somgubo osisiseko we-iron inductor SPM6530T1R5M phantsi kwexabiso elifanayo le-inductance.

图片9   9

Umzobo 9. Ukugcwala kwegophe langoku lenxeba kunye nesitampu somgubo weentsimbi ophantsi kwexabiso elifanayo lokungeniswa

Ikaliwe ngoku (IDC)

Ixabiso le-IDC kukukhetha kwe-DC xa iqondo lobushushu le-inductor linyuka laya kwi-Tr˚C. Ukucaciswa kukwabonisa ixabiso lokumelana neDC kwi-RDC kwi-20˚C. Ngokwamaqondo obushushu alinganayo ocingo lobhedu lumalunga ne-3,930 ppm, xa ubushushu beTr bukhuphuka, ixabiso layo lokumelana ne-RDC_Tr = RDC (1 + 0.00393Tr), kunye nokusetyenziswa kwayo kwamandla yi-PCU = I2DCxRDC. Le lahleko yobhedu ichithwe kumphezulu we-inductor, kwaye ukumelana ne-thermal ΘTH ye-inductor kunokubalwa:

图片13(2)

Itheyibhile 2 ibhekisa kwiphepha ledatha le-TDK VLS6045EX uthotho (6.0 × 6.0 × 4.5mm), kwaye ibala ukunganyangeki kobushushu kukunyuka kobushushu kwe-40˚C. Ngokucacileyo, kubangenisi bochungechunge olufanayo kunye nobukhulu, ukubalwa kobushushu obubalwayo kuyafana ngokufanayo ngenxa yobushushu bendawo yokutshatyalaliswa kobushushu; Ngamanye amagama, i-IDC yangoku ye-inductors eyahlukeneyo inokuqikelelwa. Uthotho olwahlukileyo (iipakeji) ze-inductors zineendlela ezahlukeneyo zokuchasa ubushushu. Itheyibhuli 3 ithelekisa ukuxhathisa kobushushu be-inductors ye-TDK VLS6045EX uthotho (olukhuselweyo semi) kunye ne-SPM6530 uthotho (olubunjiweyo). Okukhona kukho ukunganyangeki kobushushu obukhulu, kokuphakama kokuphakama kobushushu okuvelisiweyo xa inductance igeleza ngoku kulayishwa umthwalo; Ngaphandle koko, ezantsi.

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Itheyibhile 2. Ukuxhathisa kobushushu be-VLS6045EX uthotho lwee-inductors kubushushu obonyukayo be-40˚C

Kuyabonakala kwiTheyibhile 3 ukuba nokuba ubukhulu be-inductors bufana, ukumelana nobushushu kwe-stamp inductors kusezantsi, Oko kukuthi, ukutshabalalisa ubushushu kungcono.

图片15  (3)

Itheyibhile 3. Ukuthelekisa ukuxhathisa kobushushu kwiifektha ezahlukeneyo zokungenisa.

 

6. Ilahleko engundoqo

Ilahleko engundoqo, ekubhekiswa kuyo njengelahleko yentsimbi, ikakhulu ibangelwa yilahleko yangoku ye-eddy kunye nelahleko ye-hysteresis. Ubungakanani belahleko yangoku eddy ikakhulu ixhomekeke ekubeni izinto ezingundoqo kulula "ukuqhuba"; ukuba i-conductivity iphezulu, oko kukuthi, ukunganyangeki kuphantsi, ilahleko yangoku ye-eddy iphezulu, kwaye ukuba ukunganyangeki kwe-ferrite kuphezulu, ilahleko yangoku ye-eddy iphantsi. Ilahleko yangoku ye-Eddy ikwanxulumene nokuhamba rhoqo. Ukuphakama kwesantya, kokukhona ilahleko yangoku ye-eddy. Ke ngoko, izinto eziphambili ziya kugqiba ukusebenza rhoqo kwesiseko. Ukuthetha nje ngokubanzi, ukusebenza rhoqo kwesinyithi somgubo wesinyithi kunokufikelela kwi-1MHz, kwaye ukusebenza rhoqo kwe-ferrite kunokufikelela kwi-10MHz. Ukuba ukusebenza rhoqo kudlula elixesha, ilahleko yangoku ye-eddy iya kunyuka ngokukhawuleza kwaye iqondo lobushushu lesinyithi liya kunyuka. Nangona kunjalo, ngophuhliso olukhawulezayo lwezixhobo ezisisiseko zentsimbi, ii-cores zentsimbi ezinamaqondo aphezulu okusebenza kufuneka zijikeleze ikona.

Enye ilahleko yentsimbi yilahleko ye-hysteresis, elingana ngokuhambelana nendawo ebiyelweyo yigophe le-hysteresis, elihambelana nokujikwa kokuphakama kwecandelo le-AC langoku; enkulu i-AC swing, inkulu ilahleko ye-hysteresis.

Kwisekethe elinganayo ye-inductor, isixhathisi esidityaniswe ngokudibeneyo ne-inductor sihlala sisetyenziselwa ukubonisa ilahleko yentsimbi. Xa amaza alinganayo alinganayo ne-SRF, ukuphendula okunganyanzelekanga kunye nokuphendula okusebenzayo kuyarhoxisa, kwaye ukuphendula okulinganayo kunguziro. Ngeli xesha, impedance ye-inductor ilingana nokumelana nelahleko yentsimbi kuthotho kunye nokumelana okusongelayo, kwaye ukumelana nelahleko yentsimbi kukhulu kakhulu kunokumelana nokujija, ngenxa yoko i-impedance kwi-SRF ilingana nokulahleka kwentsimbi. Ukuthatha i-inductor yevolthi esezantsi njengomzekelo, ukumelana nelahleko yentsimbi malunga ne-20kΩ. Ukuba ixabiso elisebenzayo levolthi kumacala omabini e-inductor liqikelelwa ukuba yi-5V, ilahleko yayo yentsimbi imalunga ne-1.25mW, ekwabonisa ukuba okukhona ukunganyaniseki kokulahleka kwentsimbi kungcono.

7. Isakhelo sakhiwo

Ubume bempahla ye-ferrite inductors ibandakanya ukungakhuselwanga, okukhuselekileyo ngeglu yamagnetic, kwaye ikhuselwe, kwaye kukho umsantsa omkhulu komoya kuyo nayiphi na kuzo. Ngokucacileyo, umsantsa womoya uya kuba nokuvuza kwemagnethi, kwaye kwimeko embi kakhulu, iya kuphazamisana neesekethe ezincinci ezingqongileyo, okanye ukuba kukho izinto ezibazisayo ezikufuphi, ukungafakwanga kwayo kuya kutshintshwa. Esinye isakhiwo sokupakisha sisisitampu somgubo wentsimbi. Kuba akukho sithuba ngaphakathi kwe-inductor kunye nesakhiwo esisezantsi esiqinileyo, ingxaki yokuchithwa kwentsimi yamagnetic incinci. Umzobo 10 kukusetyenziswa komsebenzi we-FFT we-RTO 1004 oscilloscope ukulinganisa ubungakanani bokuvuza kwamandla e-magnetic kwi-3mm ngaphezulu nakwicala le-inductor. Uluhlu lwe-4 luluhlu lokuthelekiswa komhlaba ovuza ukuntywila kwezixhobo ezahlukeneyo zeepakethe. Kuyabonakala ukuba ii-inductors ezingakhuselekanga zinokuvuza okukhulu kakhulu; Abangenisi isitampu banezona zincinci zivuzayo, ezibonisa ezona ziphumo zibalaseleyo zokukhusela. . Umahluko kubukhulu bokuphuma kumazibuthe ozibhubhisayo ezi zinto zimbini zibekwe malunga ne-14dB, ephantse iphindwe ka-5.

10图片16

Umzobo 10. Ubungakanani bendawo evuzayo yokutsala kulinganiswa nge-3mm ngaphezulu nakwicala le-inductor

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Itheyibhile 4. Thelekisa ukuvuza komhlaba wamagnetic weepakeji ezahlukeneyo zokungenisa

8. ukudibanisa

Kwezinye izicelo, ngamanye amaxesha kukho iiseti ezininzi zabaguquli beDCD kwiPCB, ezihlala zicwangcisiwe ecaleni komnye nomnye, kwaye ii-inductors zazo ezihambelanayo zikwacwangciswa ecaleni kwenye. Ukuba usebenzisa uhlobo olungakhuselwanga okanye uhlobo olukhuselweyo olunemagnethi eyomeleleyo Inductors inokudityaniswa kunye nokwenza ukuphazamiseka kwe-EMI. Ke ngoko, xa ubeka i-inductor, kuyacetyiswa ukuba kuphawulwe ubungakanani be-inductor kuqala, kwaye uqhagamshele indawo yokuqala kunye nokujija komaleko ongaphakathi we-inductor kumandla ombane esiguquliweyo, njengeVSW yesiguquli sebhokhwe, eyona ndawo ishukumayo. Indawo yokuphuma iqhagamshelwe kwimveliso ye-capacitor, eyindawo emileyo; ucingo olucekeceke ke ngoko lwenza iqondo elithile lokukhusela intsimi yombane. Kwilungiselelo le-wiring ye-multiplexer, ukulungisa ukubonwa kwe-inductance kunceda ukulungisa ubukhulu bokungenisa kunye kunye nokuphepha ezinye iingxaki ze-EMI ezingalindelekanga.

Izicelo:

Isahluko esandulelayo sixoxe ngezinto eziphambili, ubume bephakheji, kunye neempawu zombane ezibalulekileyo ze-inductor. Esi sahluko siza kuchaza indlela yokukhetha ixabiso elifanelekileyo lokunyanzeliswa kwesiguquli sebhokhwe kunye nokuqwalaselwa kokukhetha i-inductor ekhoyo kwezorhwebo.

Njengoko kubonisiwe kwi-equation (5), ixabiso le-inductor kunye nokutshintsha rhoqo kwesiguquli kuya kuchaphazela i-inductor ripple yangoku (ΔiL). I-inductor ripple yangoku iya kuhamba ngokuphuma kwi-capacitor yemveliso kwaye ichaphazele imeko yangoku yokukhutshwa kwesixhobo sokukhupha. Ke ngoko, iya kuchaphazela ukukhethwa kwesixhobo sokukhupha kunye nokuchaphazela ngakumbi ubungakanani bokubakho kwamandla ombane. Ngaphaya koko, ixabiso lokungeniswa kunye nexabiso lokukhutshelwa kwamandla liya kuchaphazela uyilo lwentetho yenkqubo kunye nokuphendula okunamandla komthwalo. Ukukhetha ixabiso elikhulu lokunyanzeliswa kunesixinzelelo esincinci sangoku kwi-capacitor, kwaye kuyanceda ukunciphisa amandla ombane kwaye unokugcina amandla ngakumbi. Nangona kunjalo, ixabiso elikhulu lokunciphisa libonisa umthamo omkhulu, oko kukuthi, iindleko eziphezulu. Ke ngoko, xa uyila isiguquli, uyilo lwexabiso lokunyanzeliswa kubaluleke kakhulu.

图片18        (5)

Ingabonakala kwifomula (5) ukuba xa umsantsa phakathi kwevolthi yokufaka kunye nevolthi yokuphuma ikhudlwana, i-inductor ripple yangoku iya kuba nkulu, yeyona meko imbi yoyilo loyilo lwe-inductor. Idityaniswe nolunye uhlalutyo olwenziweyo, indawo yokuyila inductance yesiguquli-phantsi kufuneka ihlala ikhethwe phantsi kweemeko zombane wokufaka kunye nomthwalo opheleleyo.

Xa kuyilwa ixabiso lokungeniswa, kuyimfuneko ukwenza urhwebo phakathi kwe-inductor ripple yangoku kunye nobungakanani be-inductor, kunye ne-ripple current factor (ripple current factor; γ) ichaziwe apha, njengakwifomula (6).

图片196)

Ukutshintsha ifomula (6) kwifomula (5), ixabiso lokunyanzeliswa linokubonakaliswa njengefomula (7).

图片20  7)

Ngokwendlela (7), xa umahluko phakathi kwegalelo kunye nemveliso yombane inkulu, γ ixabiso linokukhethwa libe likhulu; Ngokuchaseneyo, ukuba igalelo kunye nemveliso yombane ikufutshane, uyilo lwexabiso γ kufuneka lube lincinci. Ukuze ukhethe phakathi kwe-inductor ripple yangoku kunye nobukhulu, ngokwexabiso lamava oyilo ngokwesiko, usually uhlala eyi-0.2 ukuya ku-0.5. Oku kulandelayo kuthatha i-RT7276 njengomzekelo ukubonisa ukubalwa kwe-inductance kunye nokukhethwa kwabangenisi abakho kurhwebo.

Umzekelo woyilo: Uyilelwe i-RT7276 yokuqhubela phambili rhoqo ngexesha (i-Advanced Constant On-Time; i-ACOT TM) isilungiso esiguquliweyo sokuguqula amanyathelo asezantsi, ukutshintsha kwamaxesha aso kungu-700 kHz, umbane wokufaka yi-4.5V ukuya kwi-18V, kwaye umbane ophumayo yi-1.05V . Umthwalo opheleleyo okhoyo ngoku ngu-3A. Njengoko kukhankanyiwe apha ngasentla, ixabiso lokunyanzeliswa kufuneka liyilelwe phantsi kweemeko zombane we-18V kunye nomthwalo opheleleyo we-3A, ixabiso le-γ lithathwa njenge-0.35, kwaye ixabiso elingasentla lifakwe endaweni yokulinganisa (7), inductance ixabiso ngu

图片21

 

Sebenzisa i-inductor enexabiso eliqhelekileyo lokuchithwa kwe-1.5 µH. Ifomula yokubambela (5) ukubala i-inductor ripple yangoku ngolu hlobo lulandelayo.

图片22

Ke ngoko, incopho yangoku ye-inductor yile

图片23

Kwaye ixabiso elisebenzayo le-inductor yangoku (i-IRMS) yile

图片24

Kuba icandelo le-inductor ripple lincinci, ixabiso elisebenzayo le-inductor yangoku ikakhulu licandelo le-DC, kwaye eli xabiso lisebenzayo lisetyenziswa njengesiseko sokukhetha i-inductor ekalwe nge-IDC yangoku. Nge-80% yokuhlekisa (ukuhlekisa) uyilo, iimfuno zokunyanzeliswa zezi:

 

L = 1.5 µH (100 kHz), IDC = 3.77 A, ISAT = 4.34 A

 

Itheyibhile yesi-5 idwelisa ii-inductors zothotho ezahlukeneyo ze-TDK, ezifanayo ngobukhulu kodwa zahlukile kubume bephakheji. Kuyabonakala kwitafile ukuba ukugcwala okwangoku kunye nokulinganiswa kwangoku kwe-inductor stamp (SPM6530T-1R5M) zikhulu, kwaye ukuxhathisa kwe-thermal kuncinci kwaye ukutshabalalisa ubushushu kulungile. Ukongeza, ngokwengxoxo kwisahluko esingaphambili, eyona nto ibalulekileyo yesitampu se-inductor sisiseko somgubo wentsimbi, ke ngoko ithelekiswa nesiseko se-ferrite se-semi-shielded (VLS6045EX-1R5N) kwaye ikhuselekile (SLF7055T-1R5N) inductors ngeglu yemagnethi. , Unempawu ezintle ze-DC. Umzobo 11 ubonakalisa uthelekiso olusebenzayo lwee-inductors ezahlukeneyo ezisetyenzisiweyo kwi-RT7276 eqhubekeke rhoqo kwi-synchronous rectification step-down converter. Iziphumo zibonisa ukuba umahluko wokusebenza kakuhle phakathi kwezi zintathu awubalulekanga. Ukuba ucinga ukusasaza ubushushu, ii-DCs ze-bias ne-magnetic field dissipation issues, kuyacetyiswa ukuba kusetyenziswe i-SPM6530T-1R5M inductors.

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Itheyibhile 5. Thelekisa inductances zoluhlu olwahlukeneyo lwe-TDK

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Umzobo 11. Thelekisa ukusebenza kwesiguquli kunye nezinto ezahlukeneyo zokungenisa

Ukuba ukhetha ubume bephakheji efanayo kunye nexabiso lokungenisa, kodwa ubungakanani obuncinci bokungenisa, njenge-SPM4015T-1R5M (4.4 × 4.1 × 1.5mm), nangona ubukhulu bayo buncinci, kodwa iDC DC yokuxhathisa i-RDC (44.5mΩ) kunye nokumelana ne-thermal ΘTH ( 51˚C) / W) Enkulu. Kubaguquli beenkcukacha ezifanayo, ixabiso elifanelekileyo langoku elinyamezelwayo yi-inductor nalo liyafana. Ngokucacileyo, uxhathiso lwe-DC luya kunciphisa ukusebenza phantsi komthwalo onzima. Ukongeza, ukuxhathisa okukhulu kwe-thermal kuthetha ukusasazeka kobushushu okungalunganga. Ke ngoko, xa ukhetha i-inductor, akuyomfuneko ukuba uqwalasele kuphela izibonelelo zobungakanani obuncitshisiweyo, kodwa uphinde uvavanye iziphene ezihamba nazo.

 

Ukuququmbela

I-inductance yenye yezinto ezisetyenziswayo xa kutshintshwa amandla okuguqula amandla, anokusetyenziselwa ukugcina amandla kunye nokucoca. Nangona kunjalo, kuyilo lwesekethe, ayisiyixabiso lokunyanzeliswa kuphela ekufuneka liqwalaselwe, kodwa ezinye iiparameter kubandakanya ukumelana ne-AC kunye nexabiso le-Q, ukunyamezelana kwangoku, isiseko sokugcwaliswa kwentsimbi, kunye nolwakhiwo lwephakheji, njl. iya kuqwalaselwa xa ukhetha i-inductor. . Ezi paramitha zihlala zinxulumene nezinto eziphambili, inkqubo yokuvelisa, kunye nobungakanani kunye neendleko. Ke ngoko, eli nqaku lazisa ngeempawu zento eyahlukileyo yentsimbi kunye nendlela yokukhetha ukungaphumeleli ngokufanelekileyo njengesalathiso kuyilo lonikezelo lwamandla.

 


Ixesha Post: Jun-15-2021